THE HEROIC PERIOD OF ARCHITECTURE IN UKRAINE

Early Modernism of the 1920s-1930s

Authors

  • Svitlana Smolenska

Downloads

Keywords:

Modernism, Ukraine, architecture and urban planning, 1920-1930s

Abstract

This article is devoted to the search for answers to several burning questions: what is the uniqueness of the industrial, civil and residential architecture of Ukraine in the 1920s - early 1930s? Does it need to be preserved? Why did foreign architectural criticism call these years the “heroic period of architecture”, yet the early Modernism of that time is still not appreciated at its true worth in its homeland? What was ‘heroic’ in the architecture of Ukraine and its first capital, Kharkiv? A brief analysis of the political and economic situation in which the newly-born independent Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic found itself is given. The most striking examples of modernist architecture in Ukraine are selected for argumentation. These are industrial giants such as Dniproges and Kharkiv Turbine Plant, the new cities of Zaporizhzhia and New Kharkiv, grandiose metropolitan projects: the ensemble of Svoboda Square—the largest square in Europe, as well as other examples of avant-garde architecture built or developed in those years are presented in the article. The reasons for their loss of authenticity in subsequent decades are revealed. Finally, the problem of preserving the heritage of Modernism in Ukraine in the conditions of a new war is touched upon.

How to Cite

Smolenska, S. (2022). THE HEROIC PERIOD OF ARCHITECTURE IN UKRAINE: Early Modernism of the 1920s-1930s. Docomomo Journal, (67). Retrieved from https://docomomojournal.com/index.php/journal/article/view/549

Published

2022-12-12

Author Biography

Svitlana Smolenska

Svitlana Smolenska, Sc. D (Architecture), Prof., Kharkiv School of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning. She was born and received her architectural education in Kharkiv, defended her Ph.D thesis in 1993 (Scientific Research Institute of Theory and History of Architecture and Urban Planning, Moscow) and received her Sc.D. diploma in 2017 (Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine). She is an expert of ISC20C, a member of the national ICOMOS (Ukraine), of the Union of Journalists of Ukraine. Her professional interests are: urban environment research, architecture and town planning of the 20th century as cultural heritage.

References

BADOVICI, J. (1933). Le moment héroïque de l’architecture moderne en U.R.S.S.” In: L’Architecture Russe en U.R.S.S. Troisième série. Extrait de “l’Architecture Vivante”, III, pp.5-6.

CANDILIS, G. (1964). Le moment héroïque l’architecture en U.R.S.S.” In: L’architecture d’aujourd’hui, 113-114, pp. 32-33.

SMOLENSKA, S. (2021). A Giant Avant-Garde Stadium Project in Ukraine: the Enigma of the 1930s. In: Architecture Civil Engineering Environment (ACEE), 14 (4), pp. 57-65. Available at https://acee-journal.pl/1,7,61,Issues.html

SMOLENSKA, S. (2015). Kharkiv Modernism after Modernism: Loss of Authenticity. In: Modernism in Europe – modernism in Gdynia: 20th century architecture until the 1960s and its preservation, Ed. by Soltysik Maria Jolanta, Hirsch Robert. Gdynia, pp.197-200.

SMOLENSKA, S. (2014). Application of new technologies in avant-garde architecture of 1920s and 1930s in Ukraine. In: Architecture: confrontation with the past. Monograph of Faculty of Architecture of Wroclaw University of Technology. Ed. by Elżbieta Trocka-Leszczyńska, Elżbieta Przesmycka. Wrocław, pp. 77–90.

АРХИТЕКТУРА СССР (1930) [ARKHYTEKTURA SSSR/ ARCHITECTURE OF THE USSR], 4, the journal cover.

ГРИЦЕНКО, Т. Б., Гриценко, С. П. & Кондратюк, А. Ю. (2007). Культурологія. Навчальний посібник. [HRYTSENKO, T. B., Hrytsenko, S. P. & Kondratiuk, A. Yu. (2007). Kulturolohiia. Navchalnyi posibnyk/ Gritsenko, T. B., Gritsenko, S. P. & Kondratyuk, A. Yu. (2007). Culturology. Tutorial].

ЖЕРБИН М. М. (Ed.) (1990). Развитие строительной науки и техники в Украинской ССР: (Т. 2): Строительная наука и техника в Украинской ССР в 1917– 1941 гг. [ZHERBYN M. M. (Ed.). Razvytye stroytelnoi nauky y tekhnyky v Ukraynskoi SSR: (T. 2): Stroytelnaia nauka y tekhnyka v Ukraynskoi SSR v 1917– 1941 hh./ Development of building science and technology in the Ukrainian SSR: (Vol. 2): Building science and technology in the Ukrainian SSR in 1917–1941, p. 132.

ОРЛОВ Г. (1954) Архитектура днепровской гидроэлектростанции имени В.И.Ленина. In: Магидин, И.Н. (Ed.), Архитектура гидроэлектростанций. [ORLOV G. Arkhytektura dneprovskoi hydroelektrostantsyy ymeny V.Y.Lenyna. In: Mahydyn, Y.N. (Ed.), Arkhytektura hydrotlektrostantsyi/ The architecture of the Dnieper hydroelectric power station named after V.I. Lenin. In: Magidin, I.N. (Ed.), The Architecture of Hydroelectric Power Stations.], pp.45-62.

ПЕРЕТЯТКОВИЧ, Б. (1928). Обзор строительства г. Харькова за последние годы. In: Зодчество, 3-4, [PERETIATKOVYCH, B. Obzor stroytelstva h. Kharkova za poslednye hody. In: Zodchestvo/ Overview of the construction of Kharkov in recent years. In: Architecture], 3-4, pp. 45-49.

СМОЛЕНСЬКА, C.O. (2017). Архітектура авангардного модернізму в Україні: генеза та спадщина. [SMOLENSKA S.O. Arkhitektura avanhardnoho modernizmu v Ukraini: heneza ta spadshchyna/ Architecture of avant-garde modernism in Ukraine: genesis and heritage], [Doctoral dissertation, Lviv Polytechnic National University]. diss_smolenska.pdf

XИТРОВ П.П. (Ed.) (1931). Харків будує. [KHITROV P.P. (Ed.) Kharkiv buduie/ Kharkiv is building], Kharkiv.

ЭНДИМИОНОВ А. (1925). Восстановление больших мостов за 1918-25 г. In: Строительная промышленность [ENDYMYONOV A. Vosstanovlenye bolshykh mostov za 1918-25 h. In: Stroytelnaia promyshlennost/ Restoration of large bridges for 1918-25 In: Construction industry], 6-7, pp. 457-460.

ЯСИЕВИЧ В., Дехтяр С. & Сухоруков С. (1986). Выдающиеся ученые инженеры-строители Украины. Будівельник. [YASYEVYCH V., Dekhtiar S. & Sukhorukov S. Vydaiushchyesia uchenye ynzhenery-stroytely Ukrayny/ Outstanding scientists and civil engineers of Ukraine], Kyiv.

ШЕВЕЛЬОВ Ю. (1983). Українізація: Радянська політика 1925-32 рр. [SHEVELOV Yu. Ukrainizatsiia: Radianska polityka 1925-32 rr. / Shevelov Y. Ukrainianization: Soviet politics 1925-32]. In: Сучасність (SUĆASNIST), 5 (265), pp. 36–57.